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Converting Biomass into Bioethanol



Reduced carbon dioxide emissions of ethanol from biomass
Source: https://www.llnl.gov/news/newsreleases/2006/images/bioenergy-cycle-409x381.jpg


It is estimated that 75% dry weight of biomass or the total mass of foliage and wood organism made up of carbohydrates (sugars, starch, hemicellulose and cellulose). development of science allows to convert biomass into liquid fuels, there are at least three processes that have been tested to convert carbohydrates to fuels, namely: the creation of bio-oil via pyrolysis of biomass, the production of alkanes or methanol through a process of Fischer-Tropsch sintesus of gas mixture CO and H2 is derived from biomass and the conversion of glucose into aromatic hydrocarbons with the help of zeolite. Conversion of glucose to ethanol is a process widely known as a way to produce liquid fuels from biomass. Bioethanol, as described above, are usually produced from sugar or other crops that are rich in starch. Such as cassava, sugarcane, and corn. Bioethanol can be used as a vehicle fuel or by blending with gasoline. Fuel mixture is called gasohol. Bioethanol have higher levels of octane (104 RON) than ordinary gasoline (95/98 RON).

Bioethanol has become more popular in many countries. In the United States for example, currently uses more than 57 billion liters of bioethanol as a fuel mixture of each year. The use of bioethanol is also rising in South Africa and the countries of Latin America. Ethanol blend of gasoline in the United States is produced from corn. While in Brazil, ethanol made from sugar cane. Provide 50% of sugarcane bioethanol fuel cars. "Biofuels are the easiest fuels as a substitute for the existing fuel system is now" as pronounced Michael Pachero, director of the National Bioenergy Center.

For General Motors (GM), the largest automobile manufacturer in the world. Ethanol-fueled vehicles is not new. The company allows the use of gasoline 10% ethanol blend on all vehicles over 20 years ago. And produced nearly 5 million vehicles per year. In Brazil, all fuel containing at least 24% Bioetanol. Refiniries facility or bio-ethanol from sugar cane refinery owned by Brazil can produce ethanol is far from enough to use all of the vehicles, both new and old in the country.

Bioethanol is a fuel that is more environmentally friendly. Ethanol significantly reduces harmful emissions in the atmosphere. Thus, the production and combustion will not increase the greenhouse effect. (Green house effect). Furthermore, ethanol is a fuel made from plants that is renewable, unlike fossil fuels.

In addition to bioethanol, biomass conversion into liquid fuel that is no less popular is the biodiesel. Biodiesel is one of those alcohols with alkyl-ester chemical name, is the same as diesel. In fact, the better its cetane value. As an additive, biodiesel can reduce motor vehicle emissions. Biodiesel made from plant oils (Jatropha, spacing kepyar, sunflower, coconut, palm oil, etc.), animal fats, algae or cooking oil. The advantage of using biodiesel is saving non-renewable energy sources and reduced health costs due to air pollution because the fuel contains no sulfur. Biodiesel is also increasingly popular in many countries around the world. Germany accounts for about 1.7 billion liters of biodiesel per year or about 3 percent of the total consumption of diesel oil. The United States did not want to miss. On April 2002, the United States Congress has approved the bill and became law authorizing the use of biodiesel. Biodiesel nationally.

Producers of palm oil in Malaysia, IOI Corp and Kuok Oil & Grains has built two palm oil refineries in Rotterdam. Within a year, palm biodiesel will be produced about 1 million tons. Ii industries oriented to meet the needs of biodiesel in Europe and in the future. It all illustrates the trend has become the world's biodiesel.

Biodiesel is made through a chemical reaction called Transesterification. This process is a reaction between the SVO (Straight Vegetable Oil) or WVO (Waste Vegetable Oil) with methanol or ethanol with the aid of caustic soda catalyst (caustic soda or NaOH) or KOH. The result is 2, which is 20% biodiesel and glycerin. Bio-oil that has been converted into biodiesel has similarities with the nature and quality of diesel fuel. In some ways, a matter of such emissions, biodiesel is even more superior than solar. Indeed, biodiesel is not free from drawbacks. However, the lack of it can be easily corrected (engineered) so that the overall biodiesel remains superior. Biodiesel can be directly poured into a tank of diesel motor fuel, provided that it meets the biodiesel standards. Engines can be direct turned on. Fuel processing is very likely to decentralize housing units and comercial.di mass development of the world, biodiesel is technically known as VOME, vegetable oil or ester oil methyl biodiversity. Raw materials are not limited to SVO or WVO, but could be from fat. Or cooking oil. Development of biodiesel from used cooking oil is rapidly increasing with the banning of the use of used cooking oil to mix animal feed because it is a carcinogen.



The process from corn and other plantfibrous crops to ethanol
Source: http://www.alternate-energy-sources.com/biomass-energy.html
















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I have no doubt that we will be successful in harnessing the sun's energy.
If sunbeams were weapons of war, we would have had solar energy centuries ago.

– Sir George Porter, quoted in The Observer, 26 August 1973

The use of solar energy has not been opened up because the oil industry does not own the sun.

– Ralph Nader, quoted in Linda Botts, ed., Loose Talk, 1980

Thank God men cannot fly, and lay waste the sky as well as the earth.

– Henry David Thoreau

There's so much pollution in the air now that if it weren't for our lungs there'd be no place to put it all.

– Robert Orben

There is a sufficiency in the world for man's need but not for man's greed.

– Mohandas K. Gandhi

Modern technology
Owes ecology
An apology.

– Alan M. Eddison

Don't blow it - good planets are hard to find.

– Quoted in Time

Nature provides a free lunch, but only if we control our appetites.

– William Ruckelshaus, Business Week, 18 June 1990

I think the environment should be put in the category of our national security. Defense of our resources is just as important as defense abroad. Otherwise what is there to defend?

– Robert Redford, Yosemite National Park dedication, 1985

Your grandchildren will likely find it incredible - or even sinful - that you burned up a gallon of gasoline to fetch a pack of cigarettes!

– Paul MacCready, Jr.

We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children.

– Native American Proverb

When we heal the earth, we heal ourselves.

– David Orr

How long can men thrive between walls of brick, walking on asphalt pavements, breathing the fumes of coal and of oil, growing, working, dying, with hardly a thought of wind, and sky, and fields of grain, seeing only machine-made beauty, the mineral-like quality of life?

– Charles A. Lindbergh, Reader's Digest, November 1939

For a successful technology, reality must take precedence over public relations, for Nature cannot be fooled.

– Richard P. Feynman

Living in the midst of abundance we have the greatest difficulty in seeing that the supply of natural wealth is limited and that the constant increase of population is destined to reduce the American standard of living unless we deal more sanely with our resources.

– W.H. Carothers




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