Reduced carbon dioxide emissions of ethanol from biomass Source: https://www.llnl.gov/news/newsreleases/2006/images/bioenergy-cycle-409x381.jpg
It is estimated that 75% dry weight of biomass or the total mass of foliage and wood organism made up of carbohydrates (sugars, starch, hemicellulose and cellulose). development of science allows to convert biomass into liquid fuels, there are at least three processes that have been tested to convert carbohydrates to fuels, namely: the creation of bio-oil via pyrolysis of biomass, the production of alkanes or methanol through a process of Fischer-Tropsch sintesus of gas mixture CO and H2 is derived from biomass and the conversion of glucose into aromatic hydrocarbons with the help of zeolite. Conversion of glucose to ethanol is a process widely known as a way to produce liquid fuels from biomass. Bioethanol, as described above, are usually produced from sugar or other crops that are rich in starch. Such as cassava, sugarcane, and corn. Bioethanol can be used as a vehicle fuel or by blending with gasoline. Fuel mixture is called gasohol. Bioethanol have higher levels of octane (104 RON) than ordinary gasoline (95/98 RON).
Bioethanol has become more popular in many countries. In the United States for example, currently uses more than 57 billion liters of bioethanol as a fuel mixture of each year. The use of bioethanol is also rising in South Africa and the countries of Latin America. Ethanol blend of gasoline in the United States is produced from corn. While in Brazil, ethanol made from sugar cane. Provide 50% of sugarcane bioethanol fuel cars. "Biofuels are the easiest fuels as a substitute for the existing fuel system is now" as pronounced Michael Pachero, director of the National Bioenergy Center.
For General Motors (GM), the largest automobile manufacturer in the world. Ethanol-fueled vehicles is not new. The company allows the use of gasoline 10% ethanol blend on all vehicles over 20 years ago. And produced nearly 5 million vehicles per year. In Brazil, all fuel containing at least 24% Bioetanol. Refiniries facility or bio-ethanol from sugar cane refinery owned by Brazil can produce ethanol is far from enough to use all of the vehicles, both new and old in the country.
Bioethanol is a fuel that is more environmentally friendly. Ethanol significantly reduces harmful emissions in the atmosphere. Thus, the production and combustion will not increase the greenhouse effect. (Green house effect). Furthermore, ethanol is a fuel made from plants that is renewable, unlike fossil fuels.
In addition to bioethanol, biomass conversion into liquid fuel that is no less popular is the biodiesel. Biodiesel is one of those alcohols with alkyl-ester chemical name, is the same as diesel. In fact, the better its cetane value. As an additive, biodiesel can reduce motor vehicle emissions. Biodiesel made from plant oils (Jatropha, spacing kepyar, sunflower, coconut, palm oil, etc.), animal fats, algae or cooking oil. The advantage of using biodiesel is saving non-renewable energy sources and reduced health costs due to air pollution because the fuel contains no sulfur. Biodiesel is also increasingly popular in many countries around the world. Germany accounts for about 1.7 billion liters of biodiesel per year or about 3 percent of the total consumption of diesel oil. The United States did not want to miss. On April 2002, the United States Congress has approved the bill and became law authorizing the use of biodiesel. Biodiesel nationally.
Producers of palm oil in Malaysia, IOI Corp and Kuok Oil & Grains has built two palm oil refineries in Rotterdam. Within a year, palm biodiesel will be produced about 1 million tons. Ii industries oriented to meet the needs of biodiesel in Europe and in the future. It all illustrates the trend has become the world's biodiesel.
Biodiesel is made through a chemical reaction called Transesterification. This process is a reaction between the SVO (Straight Vegetable Oil) or WVO (Waste Vegetable Oil) with methanol or ethanol with the aid of caustic soda catalyst (caustic soda or NaOH) or KOH. The result is 2, which is 20% biodiesel and glycerin. Bio-oil that has been converted into biodiesel has similarities with the nature and quality of diesel fuel. In some ways, a matter of such emissions, biodiesel is even more superior than solar. Indeed, biodiesel is not free from drawbacks. However, the lack of it can be easily corrected (engineered) so that the overall biodiesel remains superior. Biodiesel can be directly poured into a tank of diesel motor fuel, provided that it meets the biodiesel standards. Engines can be direct turned on. Fuel processing is very likely to decentralize housing units and comercial.di mass development of the world, biodiesel is technically known as VOME, vegetable oil or ester oil methyl biodiversity. Raw materials are not limited to SVO or WVO, but could be from fat. Or cooking oil. Development of biodiesel from used cooking oil is rapidly increasing with the banning of the use of used cooking oil to mix animal feed because it is a carcinogen.
The process from corn and other plantfibrous crops to ethanol Source: http://www.alternate-energy-sources.com/biomass-energy.html
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