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Research and Production of Green Energy

The research of biodiesel has been developed in many countries. Not only Austria, Germany, Franch, and USA but also India, Brazil, and Malaysia. In Indonesia, The Resarch and development of Biodiesel extensively since 1990. Biodiesel is produced is made from palm oil. The research carried out not only basic research but also the engine test. Later, research is growing with a variety of raw materials. Not just oil palm, but also cooking oil, castor oil, coconut oil and other vegetable oils. The biodiesel factory is not only able to manage the rubbish of CPO (Crude Palm Oil) and cooking oil but also of material non-oil vegetable oils, like castor oil. Nowdays, The Research Institute in the world such as in developing country is able to produce the biodiesel with basis of CPO (Crude Palm Oil) with 5 ton day/capasity. The Research Center of Crude Palm Oil in Indonesia also already developed Biodiesel. In fact, this institution has touched the side products such as compost, paper and particle board are generally known, but also the potential for its use to produce energy, especially electricity. Even, this institution was patented biodiesel production technology combined with the separation of carotenoids using membrane technology. Palm oil with chemical compounds known as carotenoids in the range 500-700 ppm with beta-carotene as the main component. Beta-carotene is a source of provitamin A, antioxidant, and food coloring. several studies have shown that beta-carotene can prevent cardiovascular disease and cancer when consumption at certain doses.

According to Darnoko, researchers from the oil palm research center in Indonesia, and he was the inventor of the process of membrane separation technology carotene by membrane technology is very simple, effective, and requires less energy because it takes place at a temperature of 400 C. Energy savings compared to the molecular distillation process that was developed in Malaysia for more than 90%. With membrane technology, the damage due to the influence of high temperatures carotene can also be prevented. At the center of palm research has also cultivate oil palm solid waste to be transformed into charcoal briquettes. The trick with compaction through pembriketan, drying, and composing. The advantages of this charcoal, among others, a surface that is smooth and does not leave a black color when held.

Talking about the oil industry waste briquettes distance also introduced technology makes biobriket. This environmentally friendly fuel made from the pulp / juice of the castor cake castor beans. How to make it, the distance cake mixed with starch solution and then compacted with simple tools and disnar dried sun-dried. With this technology Jatropha farmers can sell 100% castor oil is obtained, but still get a cheap fuel.

The study of biodiesel from used cooking oil has also been developed, two of the institution conducting the research material used cooking oil as biodiesel is Pasundan University and the University of Trisakti in Indonesia. To make biodiesel from used cooking oil, according to researchers from the Faculty of Engineering, University of Pasundan Farid Rizayana, required materials such as methanol and 99% caustic soda (NaOH), plastic buckets, measuring cups, pots, stoves, rubber gloves, weights, air pump aquarium, cheesecloth to filter, and hose. Materials and equipment are easily available at stores with a relatively cheap price. The manufacturing process is also easy and does not need knowledge of complex techniques. Biodiesel is produced can be directly used for cars and industrial diesel engines.

The study was conducted by experts from developing countries such as Indonesia. Research by the University Pasundan in Indonesia was carried out with the field test using a diesel engine Isuzu Panther car circuit in Sentul, Bogor. The results, found no wastage of fuel by about 10%. However, biodiesel has lower emissions than diesel.

The development of biodiesel from used cooking oil more rapidly with the banning of the use of used cooking oil for animal feed mixture, due to its yangkarsinogenik. Overseas, biodiesel from used cooking oil has been produced in Europe, the United States, and Japan. Biodiesel from used cooking oil in Austria known as AME (altfett methyl ester), whereas in Germany than is known by AME also got a name or ecodiesel frittendiesel, while in Japan called yu tempura which when processed into biofuels referred to as e-oil. The letter "e", which means four things, namely earth, environment, economy, excellent.

Utilization of used cooking oil as a diesel motor fuel is a way of disposal of used cooking oil to produce economic value and create an alternative fuel for diesel fuel that are ethical, economical, and ecological well. In addition, by converting used cooking oil into biodiesel will prevent pollution of the environment (water and soil) from the disposal of used cooking oil at any wrought and will reduce carcinogens circulating in the community especially in developing countries.

In addition there are also biodiesel biofuel biofuels which are directed at the two products, namely biodiesel from palm oil and jatropha and bioethanol (gasohol) from cassava and sugar cane. Biodiesel from palm oil has a number of advantages. In addition to non-toxic and environmentally friendly, for use in motor vehicles do not need to modify the engine. Emissions are also low, do not add to the greenhouse effect, the same energy produced, there is the effect of lubrication, storage easier, and more importantly, the supply is assured.

In developed countries, biodiesel from plants that have been produced, diniagakan and used as fuel for diesel engines in various mixtures with diesel fuel for example which is B5 (5% biodiesel, 95% diesel), B10, B20, B30, or B100. In the prose testing machine at a number of developed countries found that Jatropha biodiesel is poured directly on diesel vehicles and diesel generators without being mixed. But the result does not change the engine performance by using castor oil fuel. This is because the characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel is not very different or have properties similar to diesel oil.

In some ways, a matter of such emissions, biodiesel is superior to diesel fuel. Sulfur content is much lower making it more environmentally friendly biodiesel than diesel fuel. Not to mention the cetane number of biodiesel higher level of security and storage of diesel oil is safer than flammable.

The chemical structure of Jatropha seed oil consists of triglycerides with a straight-chain fatty acid (unbranched), with or without a double bond. This structure is similar to the CPO (Crude Palm Oil). The chemical structure of Jatropha seed oil is very different from the castor oil which has a branch hydroxyl kepyar. These structural differences lead to the use of both oils are also different. Castor oil kepyar more properly used as a lubricant rather than as a fuel.

Jatropha oil is yellow and has a high iodine number (105.2 mg iodine/g), which shows the content of unsaturated oils are high. This is evident from the results of the test-acid composition of castor oil fatty acids on the graph above. In general, this type of castor oil fatty acids similar to other seed oils. However, oleic acid content to 90%. Chemical structure and composition of Jatropha oil makes better used as a substitute for crude palm oil (CPO) on non-food applications. Finally, it stressed, jatropha oil has the potential to replace diesel oil because its cetane value is higher, and the other advantages possessed by castor oil.

Green energy research and production in other countries:

Senator Barbara Boxer praises UC Berkeley's green energy research.
Source: http://berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2008/10/images/boxer_arkin.jpg

The greater part of green energy production in Flanders comes from biomass power plants.
Source: http://www.electrawinds.be/uploads/artikels/ElectrawindsBiocentrales004.jpg

    Did You Know?
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I have no doubt that we will be successful in harnessing the sun's energy.
If sunbeams were weapons of war, we would have had solar energy centuries ago.

– Sir George Porter, quoted in The Observer, 26 August 1973

The use of solar energy has not been opened up because the oil industry does not own the sun.

– Ralph Nader, quoted in Linda Botts, ed., Loose Talk, 1980

Thank God men cannot fly, and lay waste the sky as well as the earth.

– Henry David Thoreau

There's so much pollution in the air now that if it weren't for our lungs there'd be no place to put it all.

– Robert Orben

There is a sufficiency in the world for man's need but not for man's greed.

– Mohandas K. Gandhi

Modern technology
Owes ecology
An apology.

– Alan M. Eddison

Don't blow it - good planets are hard to find.

– Quoted in Time

Nature provides a free lunch, but only if we control our appetites.

– William Ruckelshaus, Business Week, 18 June 1990

I think the environment should be put in the category of our national security. Defense of our resources is just as important as defense abroad. Otherwise what is there to defend?

– Robert Redford, Yosemite National Park dedication, 1985

Your grandchildren will likely find it incredible - or even sinful - that you burned up a gallon of gasoline to fetch a pack of cigarettes!

– Paul MacCready, Jr.

We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children.

– Native American Proverb

When we heal the earth, we heal ourselves.

– David Orr

How long can men thrive between walls of brick, walking on asphalt pavements, breathing the fumes of coal and of oil, growing, working, dying, with hardly a thought of wind, and sky, and fields of grain, seeing only machine-made beauty, the mineral-like quality of life?

– Charles A. Lindbergh, Reader's Digest, November 1939

For a successful technology, reality must take precedence over public relations, for Nature cannot be fooled.

– Richard P. Feynman

Living in the midst of abundance we have the greatest difficulty in seeing that the supply of natural wealth is limited and that the constant increase of population is destined to reduce the American standard of living unless we deal more sanely with our resources.

– W.H. Carothers