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Using Biogas

Production of biogas from household landfills
Source: http://www.acrogrp.com/files/05ef19b5636a281e786be49540fb1579/imagecache /full800/Landfill_Biogas_capture_project_0.JPG

Biogas is another form of utilization of biomass gas. Biogas is a renewable energy alternative one and quite possibly decentralized down to the countryside, and even into homes.

On small farms, waste is not a problem. Least amount of waste can be handled with ease. Unlike the large-scale farm businesses and the resulting scale will be big. If management is not done properly, can be bad. As an illustration, a cow weighing 454 kg will produce 30 kg of feces and urine waste every day. We can imagine the amount produced if 100 cows are bred, namely up to 3 tons of waste per day.

To become a gas, animal waste must be parsed first. Decomposition of livestock wastes with other biomass decomposition process. So far, there are three processes of decomposition of biomass is generally known. First, hydrolysis, namely the decomposition of long-chain compounds, such as fat and protein. Compounds to be simpler. Second, acidification, the formation of acid compounds.

Third, methanasi, namely the formation of methane gas. The third process that produces methane biogas. Gas formed because anaerobic fermentation (without air) by methane bacteria called anaerobic bacteria and bacterial biogas that reduce waste containing organic material / biomass. Of this process will form methane (CH4) that when burned to generate heat energy.

End of the 19th century, there was some research done in this field, Germany and France done some research units of biogas plants using agricultural waste in the period between the two world wars. During the second world war, many farmers in the UK and continental Europe which makes digester to produce biogas which is used to drive the tractor. Biogas technology is not new. A number of countries have been applying it decades ago, such as Russia and the United States. Livestock population of the country, like the United States, India, Taiwan, Korea and China have made use of manure as raw material for fuel. Other developing countries, a case of China, the Philippines, Korea, Taiwan, and Papua New Guinea, has conducted research and development of bio-gas plant with the same principle. Which creates an airtight instrument with principal parts consist of digesting or digester, raw material intake hole, and spending the rest of the sludge digestion (slurry), as well as bio-gas distribution piping formed. With particular technology, methane gas can be used to drive turbines who produce energy, run the refrigerator, incubator, tractors and cars. Simply put, methane gas can be used for cooking and lighting gas stoves like LPG.

There are two types of power tools or biogas digester, which is of type float or floating type and fixed dome type or a fixed dome type. In the digester, the methane bacteria bio treating waste or biomass to produce methane biogas. With the pipe designed in such a way, the gas can be flowed into the stove is located in the kitchen.

To be able to harness this energy, in the early stages required to construct / biogas digester is relatively large for the rural population. However, once stood the tool can be used and produced biogas for many years. 8 m3 plant size dome type is suitable for farmers who have three cows, 8 goats, or 100 chickens.

Types of highly processed organic materials which affect the productivity of the system in addition to other parameters such as biogas digester temperature, acidity (pH), pressure, structure of the packing material (homogeneity), and humidity. One way to determine a suitable organic material for a biogas system inputs is by knowing the ratio of carbon (C) and Nitrogen (N) or commonly called the ratio C/N.

Developed countries have much to implement biogas technology as a part to recycle, reduce pollution, and reduce the cost of managing trash. It is not like burning fossil fuels that produce carbon dioxide (CO2) that contribute to the greenhouse effect which lead to global warming, the biogas would provide resistance to the greenhouse effect.

To obtain significant results from the biogas, the mass movement required, directed, and planned include technology development, counseling, and mentoring. Beyond that, a number of obstacles must be overcome, including the manufacture of bio digester technologies require high expertise and skills to building a bio digester gas catcher is not a leak, but this should not be a serious problem because in fact the practice of making biogas installation is very easy to do. In addition to technology, funding is limited to the manufacture of digester biogas utilization and lack of socialization, sometimes makes people think it is better to use liquefied petroleum gas/electric state. For that, need socialization and a vigorous campaign.

Biogas lifecycle
Source: http://www.biogasmax.eu/media/schema2__096203600_1124_20022007.jpg

Biogas system
Source: http://www.unendlich-viel-energie.de/uploads/media/Biogas-System.jpg

Making biogas
Source: http://www.studentaward-middleeast.com/attachments/idea_146_260_1311801224.8908_Biogas_process.jpg

Biogas production form agriculture and food industry waste slurry. Products are electricity, clean fuel, carbon credits and liquid and solid fertiliser.
Source: Biopact (2008)

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I have no doubt that we will be successful in harnessing the sun's energy.
If sunbeams were weapons of war, we would have had solar energy centuries ago.

– Sir George Porter, quoted in The Observer, 26 August 1973

The use of solar energy has not been opened up because the oil industry does not own the sun.

– Ralph Nader, quoted in Linda Botts, ed., Loose Talk, 1980

Thank God men cannot fly, and lay waste the sky as well as the earth.

– Henry David Thoreau

There's so much pollution in the air now that if it weren't for our lungs there'd be no place to put it all.

– Robert Orben

There is a sufficiency in the world for man's need but not for man's greed.

– Mohandas K. Gandhi

Modern technology
Owes ecology
An apology.

– Alan M. Eddison

Don't blow it - good planets are hard to find.

– Quoted in Time

Nature provides a free lunch, but only if we control our appetites.

– William Ruckelshaus, Business Week, 18 June 1990

I think the environment should be put in the category of our national security. Defense of our resources is just as important as defense abroad. Otherwise what is there to defend?

– Robert Redford, Yosemite National Park dedication, 1985

Your grandchildren will likely find it incredible - or even sinful - that you burned up a gallon of gasoline to fetch a pack of cigarettes!

– Paul MacCready, Jr.

We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children.

– Native American Proverb

When we heal the earth, we heal ourselves.

– David Orr

How long can men thrive between walls of brick, walking on asphalt pavements, breathing the fumes of coal and of oil, growing, working, dying, with hardly a thought of wind, and sky, and fields of grain, seeing only machine-made beauty, the mineral-like quality of life?

– Charles A. Lindbergh, Reader's Digest, November 1939

For a successful technology, reality must take precedence over public relations, for Nature cannot be fooled.

– Richard P. Feynman

Living in the midst of abundance we have the greatest difficulty in seeing that the supply of natural wealth is limited and that the constant increase of population is destined to reduce the American standard of living unless we deal more sanely with our resources.

– W.H. Carothers